As 2009 drew to a close, Brazil’s Senate granted official authorization for the establishment of a new, very different kind of university in Brazil – the Federal University for Latin America Integration, otherwise known as UNILA.
Unanimously passed on December 16th 2009, the Bill now enables UNILA to formally announce itself as a university, instead of a fledging project under the banner of the Institute for Advanced Studies, with oversight by the University of Parana, in the Brazilian state of Parana.
UNILA is one of three regional integration universities launched by Brazil’s President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva in 2006 to advance Brazil’s interests within the region and globally. The other two university projects are UNILAB – the Afro-Brazilian University of Integration, and UNIAM – the University of Amazonian Integration.
These Brazilian initiatives were the latest addition to a rapidly changing higher education landscape around the globe, and one that is set to continue in 2010 (as implied in a recent NY Times report about the implications of the collapse of Dubai’s overheated economy for branch campuses such as Michigan State University and Rochester Institute of Technology).
Dubai’s spectacular meltdown in December was matched by a stunning $61m launch party for Saudi Arabia’s ‘House of Wisdom’ – the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, or KAUST which Kimberly Coulter covered for GlobalHigherEd.
As Kris Olds wrote in his introduction to Coulter’s entry:
KAUST is a unique experiment in how to organize an institution to facilitate innovation in scientific knowledge production, a secure and efficient compound (hence Saudi Aramco’s involvement), a defacto sovereign wealth fund, a demonstration effect for new approaches to higher education in Saudi Arabia, and many other things (depending on standpoint).
So what do these initiatives have in common? Money aside (KAUST has an endowment of around US$11bn), but like KAUST, Brazil’s three new universities reflect a shared ambition: to use international higher education networks to advance cultural, political and economic projects.
However while KAUST is aimed at developing a world class national university in Saudi Arabia via the recruitment of global talent (academics and students), state of the art buildings and cutting edge development projects, UNILA, UNILAB and UNIAM are aimed at creating a ‘supranational’, ‘global’ and ‘regional’ university respectively, drawing upon staff and students from within the wider region, or from across south-south networks (UNILAB) – though each, as I will show below, have distinctive visions and territorial reaches with UNILAB the most global.
In August of 2009, I had the privilege of attending the official launch of UNILA. Close to the fabulous Iguacu Falls, in Foz, Parana, UNILA is being developed on a 43 hectare site granted by Itaipu Binacional, the bi-national energy company running the huge hydro-electric dam providing energy to Paraguay and the southern cone of Brazil.
The objectives of UNILA are to pursue inter-regional trans-disciplinary research and teaching in areas of joint interest of the MERCOSUL member countries (Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina, Uruguay) focusing, for example, upon use of natural resources, trans-border biodiversity, social sciences and linguistic research, international relations as well as relevant disciplines for strategic development.
Unlike KAUST, however, whose model is US-oriented (in becoming the MIT of the East, the ‘Stanford by the Seashore’), UNILA’s mission and approach to knowledge is shaped by a distinctive Latin American commitment. Each course has a Patron and a Founder.
The first Patrons have been chosen for being Latin American names who have left relevant academic-scientific contributions associated to a field of knowledge , while course founders have been appointed for the high academic prestige in their respective fields of knowledge as well as renowned international competence in their specialities.
10 Professorial Chairs have been appointed to UNILA. Each Chair has a mandate to develop courses in ways that are inspired by, and advance, the intellectual legacy of the Patron. For instance, in the area of science, technology and innovation, founding Chair, Hebe Vessuri, will draw inspiration from the patron Amilcar Herrerra (1920-1995) – an Argentinean geologist who valued inter-disciplinary knowledge and who have argued that the solution to problems lay not with science as progress, but in the interface with policy and politics.
These patrons are clearly not the organic intellectuals of the ruling classes. Many of these patrons, such as the Chilean writer Francisco Bilbao (1823-65), and Paraguay’s Augusto Roa Bastos (1917-2005), have spent years in exile.
The target student population for UNILA is 10,000 students enrolled in undergraduate and post-graduate programmes leading to MA and PhD degrees. Entrants will be required to sit a university entry examination that will be offered in two versions: one with a Portuguese language requirement for Brazilian citizens and a Spanish Language for the foreign candidates of eligible member countries. Lectures will be offered in both Portuguese and Spanish, as it is expected that half of the teaching staff will be from the regional member countries.
By way of contrast with UNILA, UNILAB is the most global in ambition. This unilateral Portuguese-speaking Afro-Brazilian University of Integration will have campuses in various Portuguese speaking countries (Brazil, Angola, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, Portugal, Sâo Tomé and Príncipe, and East Timor). Expected to open for enrolment in the beginning of 2010, UNILAB is hailed as a political-pedagogic innovation project (see here for information on UNILAB developments).
The principal aim of UNILAB is to encourage and strengthen co-operation, partnerships, and cultural, educational and scientific exchanges between Brazil an member states of the Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries (CPLP) listed above. UNILAB will also focus on collaboration with the African countries of the CPLP, aiming to contribute to these nations’ socio-economic development, including reducing ‘brain drain’ problems currently experienced by African countries.
UNILAB is intended to become an integrated multi-campus institution with campuses in all the African member countries of the CPLP. Each of these campuses will also be integrated within the regions where they are located. Its main campus will be established in the city of Redenção in Brazil’s North-Eastern state of Ceará, approximately 60 kilometres from the city of Fortaleza. Redenção has been selected to host the main campus because it was the first municipality that had abolished slavery in Brazil, and because the region currently does not yet host a university. The main campus is also expected to function as an instrument for the strategic social-economic development of the North-East of Brazil.
In a report carried by the Observatory for Borderless Higher Education on these initiatives, Brazil’s Minister of Education, Fernando Haddad, commented:
We will not offer traditional programmes, but instead we will construct a common identity between the countries, that makes it possible to contribute to the social-economic development of each of the countries involved.
The third, more regional, initiative, Universidade Federal da Integração Amazônica, or UNIAM, will be established as a public multi-campus university, with a main campus in the Brazilian city of Santarém, and three satellite campuses in the cities Itaituba, Monte Alegre and Oriximiná, all located in Brazil’s state of Pará.
The main aim of UNIAM will be to encourage social-economic integration of the Amazon region, which includes not only parts of Brazil, but also areas of eight surrounding countries.
UNIAM’s main campus will be established in the Brazilian city of Santarém, and three satellite campuses in the cities Itaituba, Monte Alegre and Oriximiná, all located in Brazil’s state of Pará. The aim of the new institution will be to encourage social-economic integration of the Amazon region, which includes not only parts of Brazil, but also areas of eight surrounding countries.
While it is unclear at the moment when the new university will open for enrolment, by 2013 UNIAM is expected to offer 41 programmes at Bachelor’s, Master’s and doctoral levels. The Brazilian government will reportedly cover the US$107 million budget that will be needed to pay for the establishment and personnel costs of the new university until 2012.
Described by the Brazilian Ministry of Education as particular ‘political-pedagogic innovation projects’, these three new universities are intended to enhance national, regional and global integration, and demonstrate to the world that it may be possible to unite different countries through education.
These are fascinating initiatives likely to liven up the global higher education landscape in 2010. They reflect not only emerging regionalisms, but potential shifts in the sites and stakes of global and regional knowledge production and power.
Yes, Susan, I do agree, UNILAB, UNILA and UNIAM represent an innovative initiative sponsored by the Brazilian government, president Lula himself is committed to their consolidation. The Brazilian Parliament has assured their institutionalisation, multi-year budget included. Bilateral, multilateral and international partnerships will certainly be crucial to an effective maturation of all of them. Unilab will be inaugurated this year in Redenção, hope to hear more from and see you there. Paulo Speller, CI-Unilab president.
Dear Paulo, many thanks for your comments. We do hope you will keep GlobalHigherEd up to date on developments for UNILAB, and its inauguration in Redenção, including any links and papers that you think might be of interest to our readers. These are important developments and deserve wide circulation. Kind regards Susan
Dear Susan, congratulations for your keen understanding about the reach and transformative potential of the UNILA’s project, which would become a landmark at the development of higher education in Latin America. To note, on January 12th, President Lula signed the bill which formally establishes the new university. Right now we are working very hard to get it ready to start its academic activities this semester. See you in Chicago at CIES 2010.
Thanks for updating us on the formal establishment of UNILA in January 2010. We are also looking forward to learning more from you in Chicago on the materialisation of the project. best regards Susan
It is impressive to hear about such universities in Brazil noting their aims and objectives,i would have loved to be part of it but my country is not one of the aphilliated countries listed in the text and i speak only english.Since it has been my dream to acquire a higher learning in Brazil,i will like you to suggest me a university that can conveniently accommodate me.Thank you.
Thanks about you told us about UNILA, I’m student in the first class of the UNILA and the project is wonderfull and we the first students are from Paraguay, Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay are living a wonderful experience!
I’m from Rio de Janeiro in Brazil and here I’m studing and living with south american students and we are 300 people only from 4 countries now but in the next year will come students from another countries from all Latin America.
Now UNILA has six courses and is is Polític Science and Sociology: Society, State and Politic in Latin America (This is my class), Biologic Sciences: Ecology and Biodiversity, Economic Science: Economy, Integration and Development, Engineering of Renewable Energy, Civil Engineering of Infrastructure and International Relations and Integration.
Study in UNILA is a wonderful experience and yesterday we have a party with music and dances of Paraguay, Argetintia and Brazil.
The city of Foz do Iguaçu, where UNILA’s campus are is a city in the border between Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay and is a metropolitan internacional area and here are the Iguassu falls and the hydroeletric of Itaipu, one of the largest hydroeletrics of world.
We have all we need here, We live in a hotel here Technology Park of Itaipu, where provisionally are the campus.
This university sounds very innovative and the collaboration they are involved in should be commended. A definite addition to global learning.